Which of the following Are the Major Points Agreed upon by Different Nations in Paris Agreement
Montreal Protocol, 1987. Although the Montreal Protocol [PDF] was not designed to combat climate change, it was a historic environmental agreement that has become a model for future diplomacy on the issue. All countries in the world eventually ratified the treaty, which required them to stop producing substances that damage the ozone layer, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The Protocol has succeeded in eliminating almost 99 per cent of these ozone-depleting substances. In 2016, the parties agreed, through the Kigali Amendment, to also reduce their production of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), powerful greenhouse gases that contribute to climate change. A study published in 2018 indicates a threshold at which temperatures could reach 4 or 5 degrees (ambiguous expression, continuity would be “4-5°C”) compared to pre-industrial levels, thanks to self-reinforcing feedbacks in the climate system, suggesting that this threshold is below the 2-degree temperature target agreed in the Paris Climate Agreement. Study author Katherine Richardson points out: “We note that the Earth has never had a near-stable state in its history that is about 2°C warmer than the pre-industrial state and suggest that there is a significant risk that the system itself will `want` additional warming due to all these other processes – even if we stop emissions. This means not only reducing emissions, but much more.  In addition, the agreement introduces a new mechanism to “facilitate implementation and promote compliance.” This “non-adversarial” committee of experts will try to help countries that are lagging behind in their commitments to get back on track. There are no penalties for non-compliance.
The Paris Agreement provides a sustainable framework that will guide global efforts in the coming decades. The aim is to increase countries` climate ambitions over time. To this end, the agreement provides for two review processes, each of which goes through a five-year cycle. The Arctic ice is thawing. At least once a century, the Arctic would experience a summer without sea ice, which has not happened in at least two thousand years. Forty percent of Arctic permafrost would thaw by the end of the century. Every five years, countries should assess their progress in implementing the agreement through a process known as the global stocktaking; The first is scheduled for 2023. Countries set their own targets, and there are no enforcement mechanisms in place to ensure they achieve those targets.
On June 1, 2017, President Trump announced his intention to withdraw the United States from the agreement. In response, other Governments strongly reaffirmed their commitment to the agreement. U.S. cities, states, and other nonstate actors have also reaffirmed their support for the agreement and pledged to step up their climate efforts. The United States officially began its withdrawal from the agreement on November 4, 2019; the revocation took effect on November 4, 2020. President-elect Biden has promised to join the Paris Agreement as soon as he takes office. Since Trump`s announcement, U.S. envoys have continued to participate in UN climate talks as required to solidify the details of the deal. Meanwhile, thousands of leaders across the country have stepped in to fill the void created by the lack of federal climate leadership, reflecting the will of the vast majority of Americans who support the Paris Agreement. Among city and state leaders, business leaders, universities, and individuals, there has been a wave of participation in initiatives such as America`s Pledge, the U.S. Climate Alliance, We Are Still In, and the American Cities Climate Challenge.
Complementary and sometimes overlapping movements aim to deepen and accelerate efforts to combat climate change at local, regional and national levels. Each of these efforts is focused on the U.S. working toward the goals of the Paris Agreement, despite Trump`s attempts to steer the country in the opposite direction. The Paris Agreement sets out a number of binding procedural obligations. The parties undertake to “prepare, communicate and maintain” successive NDCs; “pursue national mitigation measures” to achieve their NDCs; and report regularly on their emissions and progress in implementing their NDCs. The agreement also establishes the expectation that each side`s successive NDC “represents progress” beyond the previous one and “reflects their highest possible ambition.” The completion of their NDCs by a party is not a legally binding obligation. The agreement recognises the role of non-party actors in the fight against climate change, including cities, other sub-national authorities, civil society, the private sector and others. While the expanded transparency framework is universal, as is the global stocktake that takes place every 5 years, the framework is designed to provide “built-in flexibility” to distinguish the capacities of developed and developing countries. In this context, the Paris Agreement contains provisions to improve the capacity-building framework.  The Agreement takes into account the different situations of certain countries and notes in particular that the review by technical experts for each country takes into account the specific reporting capacity of that country.
 The agreement also develops a transparency capacity building initiative to help developing countries put in place the institutions and procedures necessary to comply with the transparency framework.  The Paris Agreement is the first universal and legally binding global climate agreement adopted at the Paris Climate Change Conference (COP21) in December 2015. Although climate change mitigation and adaptation require increased climate finance, adaptation has generally received less support and mobilized less private sector action.  A 2014 OECD report found that in 2014, only 16% of global financing went to climate change adaptation.  The Paris Agreement called for a balance between climate finance and mitigation, and in particular highlighted the need to increase adaptation support for parties most vulnerable to the effects of climate change, including least developed countries and small island developing states. The agreement also reminds the parties of the importance of public subsidies, as adaptation measures receive less investment from the public sector.  John Kerry, as Secretary of State, announced that the United States would double funding for grant-based adaptation by 2020.  The assessment is part of the Paris Agreement`s efforts to increase ambition to reduce emissions. While analysts agreed in 2014 that NDCs would not limit temperature rise to below 2 degrees Celsius, the global inventory brings parties together to assess how their new NDCs need to evolve so that they permanently reflect a country`s “highest possible ambition.”  The goal of the agreement is to reduce global warming as described in Article 2 and improve the implementation of the UNFCCC through the following measures: Instead of giving China and India a pollution pass, as Trump claims, the pact represents the first time these two major developing countries have agreed on concrete and ambitious climate commitments. The two countries, which are already poised to become world leaders in renewable energy, have made significant progress towards achieving their Paris goals.
And since Trump announced his intention to withdraw the United States from the deal, the leaders of China and India have reaffirmed their commitment and continued to take domestic steps to achieve their goals. Rising seas. Tens of millions of people live in coastal areas that would be flooded in the coming decades. Small island States are particularly vulnerable. Paragraphs 6.4 to 6.7 introduce a mechanism “to contribute to the control of greenhouse gases and support sustainable development”.  Although there is still no specific name for the mechanism, many Parties and observers have informally united around the name “Sustainable Development Mechanism” or “SW Award”.   The MSD is considered the successor to the Clean Development Mechanism, a flexible mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol through which Parties could jointly request emission reductions for their intended nationally determined contributions. .
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